mardi 10 avril 2012

Analyse sémantique du discours corporate des entreprises sur le développement durable / 2e édition

En collaboration avec Communication & Entreprise, le cabinet Inférences vient de publier la deuxième édition de son analyse sémantique du discours corporate des entreprises sur le développement durable.

Pas de bouleversement majeur du discours des entreprises sur le développement durable dans cette deuxième édition. Les fondamentaux ont peu bougé entre 2009 et 2011, même si l’on constate le renforcement de l’idée que le développement durable est un levier stratégique suffisamment puissant pour que des moyens et de fortes expertises lui soient consacrés.

Les principaux enseignements de cette analyse sont les suivants :

Développement durable ou RSE, une ambiguïté lexicale aux implications importantes sur l’usage du « mot » et la pratique de la « chose » 
Le lexique mobilisé pour évoquer l’action de l’entreprise en faveur du développement durable ne semble pas encore tout à fait stabilisé. Développement durable est encore utilisé 3 fois plus souvent que ne l’est RSE (7 fois plus dans le seul discours des dirigeants), alors même que le discours global de l’entreprise tend à faire la part belle à une conception très pragmatique du développement durable, donc à la RSE… Si le premier mot connote plus volontiers une vision ou une politique, le second renvoie généralement à une démarche et des pratiques concrètes. Une bonne distribution des rôles donc mais qui souffre de nombreuses exceptions qui devraient alerter la communauté des communicants.

Fin d’une utopie et de la culpabilisation morale… naissance d’un monde de projets !
Les postures morales marquent le pas, au bénéfice d’une éthique de l’action propre à l’entreprise et à l’exercice de sa rationalité. Sur fond de volontarisme et d’indicateurs mesurés, nous assistons au troc d’une posture jusqu’à présent tout en « savoir-être », pour une mobilisation de « savoir-faire » experts dont l’entreprise revendique désormais la maîtrise.

De la gestion des contraintes exogènes à la revendication de contraintes endogènes
Le développement des chartes (d’éthique, RSE, d’engagements responsables…) constitue en effet un signe qui tend vers l’imposition de contraintes endogènes. Au respect de la loi, vient désormais s’ajouter celui de principes édictés par l’entreprise elle-même et qui ont – peut-être parfois un peu facilement – force de preuves.

Une aspiration relationnelle encore souvent abstraite
Le « dialogue avec les parties prenantes » remporte un franc succès dans la rhétorique de l’entreprise. Incontestablement désiré, bien souvent revendiqué, ce dialogue reste toutefois bien abstrait : quelles parties prenantes ? Quelle nature de dialogue ? Pour dire quoi au juste ? Pour quels constats ? Ces questions restent sans véritables réponses. L’entreprise relationnelle n’est donc pas à l’ordre du jour. Relationnelle et dialogique, l’entreprise le deviendra dès lors que sa communication sera suffisamment « adulte » pour entrer dans des processus authentiquement dialectiques avec ses parties prenantes. Des processus qui supposent que l'entreprise assume certaines contradictions et cesse de présenter un visage lisse auquel, du reste, plus personne ne croît. Alors seulement, le « dialogue avec les parties prenantes » trouvera sans doute à s'incarner…
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